Historical evidence suggests that the quality and efficiency of a country's institutions, such as law enforcement, property rights, and civil rights, are significant determinants of its growth performance. Furthermore, the extent of inequality in a society is highly related to both the quality of institutions and economic growth. This course is focused on the relations between institutions, modern economic growth, and equality. Problems in the world of today are taken as a point of departure for an historical analysis that covers countries and regions in different parts of the world. The course builds on the four themes. The first theme deals with the emergence of institutions such as property rights and markets, and their role for economic growth. The second theme concerns the importance of the distribution of resources for institutional development and economic growth. The third theme is about the interrelationship between institutions, knowledge and equality of opportunity. The fourth theme deals with the emergence of the modern welfare state as an institutional response to inequality.